Malaria

Malaria is a life-threatening condition caused by infected female Anopheles mosquitoes.  Sub-Saharan Africa carries the main burden of malaria.

 

Eighty-eight percent of the malaria cases in the world are in sub-Saharan Africa.

Malaria is preventable and curable.  It is caused by Plasmodium parasites through mosquitoes.  P falciparum causes the majority of malaria cases in the African sub-continent.

Symptoms:

Malaria usually comes with fever, chills, headache, muscle or joint pains, and vomiting.  Symptoms start seven days after an infected mosquito bite.  If not treated carefully, it may progress to severe illness, often leading to death.

Complications:

Severe malaria usually gives rise to complications like anemia, cerebral malaria, respiratory distress, and multi-organ involvement, if not treated carefully and on time.

Diagnosis:

Diagnosis is usually made by symptoms and confirmation by a blood test.  We must do blood tests to avoid misdiagnosis and unnecessary antimalarial treatments, which can cause resistance after some time.

Specific antimalarial treatment should be started as soon as malaria is diagnosed.  It may vary from tablets to injections, depending on the severity of the disease.  It is essential to complete the prescribed dose of antimalarial and supportive drugs to prevent relapse.

Prevention:

Prevention of malaria is very important.

You can prevent mosquito bites by using residual indoor spraying.  Using treated mosquito nets will help to avoid mosquito bites at night.  Use mosquito repellents when you go out, especially in the evenings and nights.  Try to cover your body as much as possible when you are outdoors.  Wear long pants and long-sleeve shirts when you go out in the evenings.  Use malaria prophylactic if you are prone to malaria.

Pregnant women, children under five years, and some individuals are very prone to malaria attack.

Preventing mosquito breeding is the most important step in malaria prevention.  Eliminate standing water in your surroundings.  Empty drains or cover everything that can hold water.  Barrels, cans, old tires, empty bottles, and buckets usually hold standing water around our surroundings.

Cover the drainage and make sure it is flowing.  Standing drainages are one of the main breeding points.  Repair and prevent plumbing leakages, which may be a source for breeding.  Remove water from the flowerpots at least twice in a week.  Trim your plants and bushes.  This is the place where the adult mosquito stays.

Deposit some fish in the larger bodies of water.  They will consume larvae and stop the mosquito breeding cycle.  Use mineral oil or kerosene in stagnant water bodies to prevent mosquitoes from laying eggs.

By AUN Health Center

American University of Nigeria
98 Lamido Zubairu Way
Yola Township bypass
PMB 2250, Yola
Adamawa State, Nigeria

Tel: +234 805-200-0703

          

 

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